Early lifeKelly was born in Overtown Miami, Florida, the fourth of six siblings. Kelly was brought up by his grandmother. In about 1956, Kelly's brother Henry formed a vocal group, with Paul as lead vocalist. It only lasted a few months, before Henry left Miami to go to college. Paul then formed a group with school friends from 20th Street School — The Spades, later known as The Valadeers. Another member was Jimmy Cherry, who later sang with The Fantastics.Solo careerIn 1960, Kelly went left the group to go solo, recording the standard, "I'll String Along With You" for Dade Records, which was never released, following a dispute between Kelly and the label.A Miami-based singer/songwriter/producer, Clarence Reid (who would later perform as Blowfly), heard Kelly rehearse, and asked him to fill in on lead vocals with his group, The Delmiros, whose lead singer had laryngitis. Kelly recorded a single, "Down With It, Can't Quit It"/"Sooner Or Later", which was released on Selma Records in 1963, under the name Clarence Reid & The Delmiros. Kelly began performing the song live in clubs and became associated with the song. Reid asked him to join The Delmiros on a permanent basis.Kelly's official debut solo single appeared on the Lloyd label in 1965: "It's My Baby"/"The Upset" (inspired by the surprise boxing victory of Cassius Clay over Sonny Liston.) A second single, "Chills And Fever" (written by Clarence Reid and Willie Clarke) was picked up by Dial Records and distributed by Atlantic. label for wider distribution. Relations between Kelly and Reid became strained. Nashville producer Buddy Killen, who had also fallen out with Reid, approached Kelly about working together. Meanwhile, Lloyd Records issued an answer record, "Thrills And Chills", by Helene Smith. Kelly released a third single, "Since I Found You" under the name Paul Kelly & the Rocketeers.After this, Kelly released four singles on Philips Records, produced by Killen in Muscle Shoals, including a ballad, "Nine Out Of Ten Times" (writing credit: Kelly/Reid/Clarke). Meanwhile, Dial had released two singles by the highly-popular Joe Tex, one of which ("We're Gonna Make It') was co-written with Kelly. At the time, Kelly often toured with and opened for Tex.In 1967, Kelly decided to move to Brooklyn, New York City, and invited a song-writing collaborator, Juanita Rogers, to join him. They became a couple and moved in together. Kelly cut some material for Stan Watson's Philly Groove label in 1968, but it remains unissued and he later described it as poor."Stealing in the Name of the Lord"Kelly wrote "Stealing In The Name Of The Lord", with Sam & Dave in mind. However, Sam Moore, whom he had known in Miami, rejected it.The song, whose title references "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone", tackles the hypocrisy of some church leaders. It includes the lines:Kelly later commented: "that's been my way of thinking all the time. Thinking about what's wrong with [the\] church... And what they talk about and what they do are two different things..."Kelly sold the rights to the song to Buddy Killen, and recorded it at Muscle Shoals. Killen got it released through the Hollywood-based Happy Tiger Records. However, R&B radio stations were worried that the song would offend sponsors, such as those on gospel shows. The record was consequently slow to take off.Around the same time, Annette Snell, under the name Annetta, released a single written by Kelly, who assisted on backing vocals, called "Since There Is No More Of You'.The breakthrough came when Jerry "Swamp Dogg" Williams Jr., who was about to visit Baltimore to promote his own productions, persuaded Kelly to come with him. They visited a WWIN radio DJ, Rockin' Robin. Although Kelly was now trying to push the b-side, "The Day After Forever", Rockin' Robin liked "Stealing In The Name Of The Lord" so much, that he played it several times in a row. Kelly recalled: "everybody started calling in and I never looked back after that." The single first appeared on the Cashbox R&B charts on June 13, 1970 and in Billboard a week later. It peaked at #5 (Cashbox) and #14 Billboard.The song also became popular in England's Northern Soul club scene. (In the 1980s it became the basis for a song of the same name by an English post-punk band, Yeah Yeah Noh.)Despite Kelly's stand in the lyrics of "Stealing In The Name Of The Lord", another of his songs, "God Can", been recorded by the Staple Singers, the Mighty Clouds Of Joy and Dorothy Norwood. Mavis Staples, also cut solo versions of Kelly's "We Got Love" and "I've Been To The Well Before" songs on her 1979 solo album, Oh What A Feeling (produced by Jerry Wexler and Barry Beckett).The 1970s and '80sIn the wake of Kelly's major hit, Happy Tiger quickly released an album and three singles, but the label was in financial trouble and went out of business in 1971. Kelly was signed by Warner Bros. Records, which reissued the Happy Tiger album in 1972 as Dirt, taking the name from the single, "(He Ain't Nothin' But) Dirt". Kelly's third Warner Bros. Records single, "Don't Burn Me" (1972), was also a minor hit. It was followed by an album of the same name.A 1974 single, "Hooked, Hogtied & Collared" was his second biggest self-recorded hit, and it too inspired an album by the same name, with controversial artwork — a drawing depicting bondage.With disco on the rise, Warner Bros. Records forced out Kelly's preferred producer, Buddy Killen. Kelly recorded with Gene Page (Barry White's co-arranger), but the material was never released. These events signalled a more general disagreement between Kelly and his record company, and the relationship was terminated. After a single for Epic Records, "Everybody Got A Jones"/"Shake Your Mind", Kelly decided to concentrate on songwriting and production. He has not performed live since 1977.At around this time, Kelly also wrote a song called "Personally", which he gave to Jackie Moore. Although it was not a major hit for her, Karla Bonoff recorded the song in 1982, and gained a #19 pop hit. (Country singer Ronnie McDowell has also scored a top ten country hit with the song and Kelly recorded "Personally" on his 1993 Gonna Stick And Stay album.)In 1983, Kelly started his own independent label, Laurence Records, using the pseudonym "Laurence Dunbar". The label had a minor hit with "Bring It On Home To Me", sung by Carol Dennis and written and produced by Kelly, in 1984/85. (He wound up the label in 1991.)In the late 1980s, Kelly and his family moved from Brooklyn to Ruby, South Carolina, which was considered a better place to raise a family. Kelly continued to send out demos to labels.Return to recordingKelly recorded an album, Gonna Stick And Stay, in New Orleans in July–August 1992.In 1994, he suffered a heart failure and another in 1995, as well as a stroke. His vocal range suffered as a result of his health problems, which also caused Kelly to become a vegetarian.Warner Bros. Records issued a Best Of Paul Kelly as part of their Warner Archives CD series, in 1996.In 1998, with Marion Carter co-producing, Kelly recorded a new album, Let's Celebrate Life, in South Carolina, for the local label Ripete Records. It included a remake of "Stealing In The Name Of The Lord".In late 2011, Kelly released an album titled "1984" containing unreleased songs he recorded in that year.Footnotes^ "Paul Kelly: On the Positive Side", In The Basement (magazine), 2003; cited by the Soul Cellar website. Access date: June 26, 2007.^ In The Basement, Ibid.