George Harrison, MBE (25 February 1943 – 29 November 2001) was an English musician, singer and songwriter who achieved international fame as the lead guitarist of the Beatles. Although John Lennon and Paul McCartney were the band's primary songwriters, most of their albums included at least one Harrison composition, including "While My Guitar Gently Weeps", "Here Comes the Sun" and "Something", which became the Beatles' second-most-covered song.Harrison's earliest musical influences included Big Bill Broonzy, George Formby and Django Reinhardt; Chet Atkins, Chuck Berry and Ry Cooder were significant later influences. By 1965 he had begun to lead the Beatles into folk rock through his interest in the Byrds and Bob Dylan, and towards Indian classical music through his use of the sitar on "Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)". He developed an interest in the Hare Krishna movement and became an admirer of Indian culture and mysticism, introducing them to the other members of the Beatles and their Western audience by incorporating Indian instrumentation in their music. After the band's break-up in 1970, Harrison released the triple album All Things Must Pass, from which two hit singles originated. He also organized the 1971 Concert for Bangladesh with Ravi Shankar, a precursor for later benefit concerts such as Live Aid. Harrison was a music and film producer as well as a musician; he founded Dark Horse Records in 1974 and co-founded HandMade Films in 1978.Harrison released several best-selling singles and albums as a solo performer, and in 1988 co-founded the platinum-selling supergroup the Traveling Wilburys. A prolific recording artist, he was featured as a guest guitarist on tracks by Badfinger, Ronnie Wood and Billy Preston, and collaborated on songs and music with Bob Dylan, Eric Clapton and Tom Petty, among others. Rolling Stone magazine ranked him number 11 in their list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time".Harrison's first marriage, to Pattie Boyd, ended in divorce in 1977. The following year he married Olivia Trinidad Arias, with whom he had one son, Dhani. Harrison died in 2001, aged 58, from lung cancer. He was cremated and his ashes were scattered in the Ganges and Yamuna rivers in India, in a private ceremony according to Hindu tradition. He left almost £100 million in his will.Early solo workBefore the Beatles' break-up Harrison had already recorded and released two solo albums: Wonderwall Music and Electronic Sound, both of which include mainly instrumental compositions. Wonderwall Music, a soundtrack to the 1968 film Wonderwall, blends Indian and Western instrumentation, while Electronic Sound is an experimental album that prominently features a Moog synthesizer. Released in November 1968, Wonderwall Music was the first solo album by a Beatle and the first LP released by Apple Records. Indian musicians Aashish Khan and Shivkumar Sharma performed on the album, which contains the experimental sound collage "Dream Scene", recorded several months before Lennon's "Revolution 9".In December 1969 Harrison participated in a brief tour of Europe with the American group Delaney & Bonnie and Friends. During the tour that included Clapton, Bobby Whitlock, drummer Jim Gordon and band leaders Delaney and Bonnie Bramlett, Harrison began to write "My Sweet Lord", which became his first single as a solo artist. Delaney Bramlett inspired Harrison to learn slide guitar, significantly influencing his later music.All Things Must PassAfter years of being restricted in his songwriting contributions to the Beatles' albums, Harrison released All Things Must Pass. It was a triple album, with two discs of his songs and the third of recordings of Harrison jamming with friends. Regarded by many as his best work, the album topped the charts on both sides of the Atlantic. The LP produced the number-one hit single "My Sweet Lord" and the top-ten single "What Is Life". The album was co-produced by Phil Spector using his "Wall of Sound" approach, and the musicians included Starr, Clapton, Gary Wright, Preston, Klaus Voormann, the whole of Delaney and Bonnie's Friends band and the Apple group Badfinger. Ben Gerson of Rolling Stone described All Things Must Pass as being "of classic Spectorian proportions, Wagnerian, Brucknerian, the music of mountain tops and vast horizons." Author and musicologist Ian Inglis considered the lyrics of the album's title track "a recognition of the impermanence of human existence ... a simple and poignant conclusion" to Harrison's former band. In 1971 Bright Tunes sued Harrison for copyright infringement over "My Sweet Lord" owing to its similarity to the 1963 Chiffons hit "He's So Fine". He denied deliberately plagiarizing the song, but lost the court case in 1976 as the judge ruled that he had done so subconsciously.In 2000 Apple Records released a thirtieth anniversary edition of the album and Harrison actively participated in its promotion, giving an interview during which he reflected on the work: "It's just something that was like my continuation from the Beatles, really. It was me sort of getting out of the Beatles and just going my own way ... it was a very happy occasion." He commented on the production: "Well, in those days it was like the reverb was kind of used a bit more than what I would do now. In fact, I don't use reverb at all. I can't stand it ... You know, it's hard to go back to anything thirty years later and expect it to be how you would want it now."The Concert for BangladeshResponding to a request from Ravi Shankar, Harrison organized a charity event, the Concert for Bangladesh, which took place on 1 August 1971, drawing over 40,000 people to two shows in New York's Madison Square Garden. The goal of the event was to raise money to aid starving refugees during the Bangladesh Liberation War. Shankar opened the show, which featured popular musicians such as Dylan, Clapton, Leon Russell, Badfinger, Preston and Starr.A triple album, The Concert for Bangladesh, was released by Apple Corps that year, followed by a concert film in 1972. Tax troubles and questionable expenses later tied up many of the proceeds, but Harrison commented: "Mainly the concert was to attract attention to the situation ... The money we raised was secondary, and although we had some money problems ... they still got plenty ... even though it was a drop in the ocean. The main thing was, we spread the word and helped get the war ended." The event has been described as an innovative precursor for the large-scale charity rock shows that followed, including Live Aid.Living in the Material World to George HarrisonLiving in the Material World (1973) held the number one spot on the Billboard album chart for five weeks, and the album's single, "Give Me Love (Give Me Peace on Earth)", also reached number one in the US. In the UK, the LP achieved number two, spending 12 weeks on the charts with the single peaking at number 8. The album was lavishly produced and packaged, and its dominant message was Harrison's Hindu beliefs. In Greene's opinion it "contained many of the strongest compositions of his career". Rolling Stone's Stephen Holden declared the album "vastly appealing" and "profoundly seductive ... [it\] stands alone as an article of faith, miraculous in its radiance." Other reviewers were less enthusiastic, describing the release as awkward, sanctimonious and overly sentimental, a reaction that left Harrison despondent.In November 1974 Harrison began his 45-date Dark Horse Tour, becoming the first ex-Beatle to tour North America. In addition to performances by Harrison with an ensemble of musicians such as Preston, Tom Scott, Willie Weeks, Andy Newmark and Jim Horn, the tour also included traditional and contemporary Indian music performed by "Ravi Shankar, Family and Friends". Despite numerous positive reviews the consensus reaction to the tour was negative, with complaints about the content, structure, and length; the show's duration of two and a half hours was seen as excessive at the time. Some fans found Shankar's significant presence a bizarre disappointment, having expected to see only Harrison perform, and many were affronted by what Inglis described as Harrison's "sermonizing". Further, he reworked the lyrics to several Beatles songs, and some of the substitutions were seen as "gratuitously offensive". His laryngitis-affected vocals also disappointed fans and critics, who began calling the tour "dark hoarse". Harrison was so deeply bothered by the caustic backlash that he did not tour again until the 1990s. The author Robert Rodriguez commented: "While the Dark Horse tour might be considered a noble failure, there were a number of fans who were tuned-in to what was being attempted. They went away ecstatic, conscious that they had just witnessed something so uplifting that it could never be repeated." Leng called the tour "groundbreaking" and "revolutionary in its presentation of Indian Music".In December Harrison released Dark Horse, an album that earned him the least favourable reviews of his career. Rolling Stone called it "the chronicle of a performer out of his element, working to a deadline, enfeebling his overtaxed talents by a rush to deliver a new 'LP product', rehearse a band, and assemble a cross-country tour, all within three weeks." The album reached number 4 on the Billboard chart and the single "Dark Horse" reached number 15, but they failed to make an impact in the UK. The music critic Mikal Gilmore described Dark Horse as "one of Harrison's most fascinating works – a record about change and loss".Harrison's final studio album for EMI and Apple Records was the soul music-inspired Extra Texture (Read All About It) (1975). He considered it the least satisfactory of the three he had recorded since All Things Must Pass. Leng identified "bitterness and dismay" in many of the album's tracks; his long-time friend Klaus Voormann commented: "He wasn't up for it ... It was a terrible time because I think there was a lot of cocaine going around, and that's when I got out of the picture ... I didn't like his frame of mind". He released two singles from the LP: "You", which reached the Billboard top 20, and "This Guitar (Can't Keep from Crying)", Apple's final original single release.Thirty Three & 1/3 (1976), Harrison's first album release on his own Dark Horse Records label, produced the hit singles "This Song" and "Crackerbox Palace", both of which reached the top 25 in the US. The surreal humour of "Crackerbox Palace" reflected Harrison's association with Monty Python's Eric Idle, who directed a comical music video for the song. With an emphasis on melody and musicianship, and a more subtle subject matter than the pious message of his earlier works, Thirty Three & 1/3 earned Harrison his most favourable critical notices in the US since All Things Must Pass.In 1979, following his second marriage and the birth of his son Dhani, he released George Harrison. The album and the single "Blow Away" both made the Billboard top 20. The album marked the beginning of Harrison's gradual retreat from the music business, and the fruition of ideas introduced on All Things Must Pass. In 1978 the death of his father in May and the birth of his son in August had influenced his decision to devote more time to his family than to his career. Leng described the album as "melodic and lush ... peaceful ... the work of a man who had lived the rock and roll dream twice over and was now embracing domestic as well as spiritual bliss."Somewhere in England to Cloud NineThe murder of Lennon on 8 December 1980 disturbed Harrison and reinforced his decades-long concerns about stalkers. It was also a deep personal loss, although unlike McCartney and Starr, Harrison had had little contact with Lennon in the years before his death. Following the murder, Harrison commented: "After all we went through together I had and still have great love and respect for John Lennon. I am shocked and stunned."Harrison modified the lyrics of a song he had written for Starr to make it a tribute song to Lennon. "All Those Years Ago", which included vocal contributions from Paul and Linda McCartney, as well as Starr's original drum part, peaked at number two in the US charts. The single was included on the album Somewhere in England in 1981. Harrison did not release any new albums for five years after 1982's Gone Troppo received little notice from critics or the public.During this period he made several guest appearances, including a 1985 performance at a tribute to Carl Perkins titled Blue Suede Shoes: A Rockabilly Session. In March 1986 he made a surprise appearance during the finale of the Birmingham Heart Beat Charity Concert, an event organized to raise money for the Birmingham Children's Hospital. The following year, he appeared at The Prince's Trust concert at London's Wembley Arena, performing "While My Guitar Gently Weeps" and "Here Comes the Sun". In February 1987 he joined Dylan, John Fogerty and Jesse Ed Davis on stage for a two-hour performance with the blues musician Taj Mahal. Harrison recalled: "Bob rang me up and asked if I wanted to come out for the evening and see Taj Mahal ... So we went there and had a few of these Mexican beers – and had a few more ... Bob says, 'Hey, why don't we all get up and play, and you can sing?' But every time I got near the microphone, Dylan comes up and just starts singing this rubbish in my ear, trying to throw me."In November 1987 Harrison released the platinum album Cloud Nine. Co-produced with Jeff Lynne of Electric Light Orchestra, the LP included Harrison's rendition of James Ray's "Got My Mind Set on You", which went to number one in the US and number two in the UK. The accompanying music video received substantial airplay, and another single, "When We Was Fab", a retrospective of the Beatles' career, earned two MTV Music Video Awards nominations in 1988. Recorded at his estate in Friar Park, Harrison's slide guitar playing featured prominently on the album, which included several of his long-time musical collaborators, including Clapton, Keltner, and Jim Horn, who recalled Harrison's relaxed and friendly demeanour during the sessions: "George made you feel at home, in his home ... He once had me sit on a toilet and play my soprano sax, and they miked it at the end of the hall for a distant sound. I thought they were kidding ... Another time he stopped me in the middle of a sax solo and brought me 3 p.m. tea—again I thought he was kidding." Cloud Nine reached number eight and number ten on the US and UK charts respectively, and several tracks from the album achieved placement on Billboard's Mainstream Rock chart – "Devil's Radio", "This Is Love" and "Cloud 9".The Traveling WilburysIn 1988 Harrison formed the Traveling Wilburys with Jeff Lynne, Roy Orbison, Bob Dylan and Tom Petty. The band had gathered in Dylan's garage to record a song for a Harrison European single release. Harrison's record company decided the track, "Handle with Care", was too good for its original purpose as a B-side and asked for a full album. The LP, Traveling Wilburys Vol. 1, was released in October 1988 and recorded under pseudonyms as half-brothers, supposed sons of Charles Truscott Wilbury, Sr. Harrison's pseudonym on the first album was "Nelson Wilbury"; he used the name "Spike Wilbury" for their second album.After Orbison's death in December 1988 the group recorded as a four-piece. Their second release, issued in October 1990, was mischievously titled Traveling Wilburys Vol. 3. According to Lynne, "That was George's idea. He said, 'Let's confuse the buggers.'" It reached number 14 in the UK, where it went platinum with certified sales of more than 3,000,000 units. The Wilburys never performed live and the group did not record together again following the release of their second album.In 1989 Harrison and Starr appeared in the music video for Tom Petty's song "I Won't Back Down". Starr is filmed playing the drums, but did not play on the track; Harrison played acoustic guitar and provided backing vocals. In December 1991, Harrison joined Clapton for a tour of Japan. It was Harrison's first since 1974 and no others followed. On 6 April 1992, Harrison held a benefit concert for the Natural Law Party at the Royal Albert Hall, his first London performance since the Beatles' 1969 rooftop concert. In October 1992 he performed at a Bob Dylan tribute concert at Madison Square Garden in New York City, playing alongside Dylan, Clapton, McGuinn, Petty and Neil Young.The Beatles AnthologyIn 1994 Harrison began a collaboration with McCartney, Starr and producer Jeff Lynne for the Beatles Anthology project. This included the recording of two new Beatles songs built around solo vocal and piano tapes recorded by Lennon as well as lengthy interviews about the Beatles' career. Released in December 1995, "Free as a Bird" was the first new Beatles single since 1970. In March 1996, they released a second single, "Real Love". Harrison refused to participate in the completion of a third song. He later commented on the project: "I hope somebody does this to all my crap demos when I'm dead, make them into hit songs."Following the Anthology project, Harrison collaborated with Ravi Shankar on the latter's Chants of India. Harrison's final television appearance was a VH-1 special to promote the album, taped in May 1997. Soon after, he was diagnosed with throat cancer, and treated with radiotherapy, which was thought at the time to be successful. In January 1998, Harrison attended Carl Perkins's funeral in Jackson, Tennessee, performing a brief rendition of Perkins's song "Your True Love". In June 1998, he attended the public memorial service for Linda McCartney, and appeared on Starr's album Vertical Man, playing guitar on two tracks.Knife attack and illnessOn 30 December 1999, 36-year-old Michael Abram broke into the Harrisons' Friar Park home and attacked Harrison with a kitchen knife, puncturing a lung and causing head injuries before Olivia Harrison incapacitated the assailant by striking him repeatedly with a poker and a lamp. Following the attack, Harrison was hospitalized with more than forty stab wounds. He released a statement soon after regarding his assailant: "[he\] wasn't a burglar, and he certainly wasn't auditioning for the Traveling Wilburys."In May 2001 it was revealed that Harrison had undergone an operation to remove a cancerous growth from one of his lungs, and in July, it was reported that he was being treated for a brain tumour at a clinic in Switzerland. While in Switzerland, Starr visited him, but had to cut his stay short to travel to Los Angeles, where his daughter was undergoing emergency brain surgery, prompting Harrison to quip: "Do you want me to come with you?" In November 2001, he began radiotherapy at Staten Island University Hospital in New York City for lung cancer that had spread to his brain. When the news was publicized, Harrison bemoaned his physician's breach of privacy, and his estate later claimed damages. On 12 November, the three living former Beatles met for the last time at Harrison's hotel in New York for lunch.SongwritingHarrison wrote his first song, "Don't Bother Me", while sick in a hotel bed in Bournemouth during August 1963, as "an exercise to see if I could write a song", as he remembered. "Don't Bother Me" appeared on the band's second album, With the Beatles, later that year, then on Meet the Beatles! in the US in early 1964. In 1965, he contributed "I Need You" and "You Like Me Too Much" to the album Help!.Harrison's songwriting ability improved through the years, but his material did not earn full respect from his fellow Beatles until near the group's break-up. In 1969, McCartney told Lennon: "Until this year, our songs have been better than George's. Now this year his songs are at least as good as ours". Harrison often had difficulty getting the band to record his songs. Most Beatles albums contain at least two Harrison compositions, and there are three of his songs on the 1966 Revolver LP, "the album on which Harrison came of age as a songwriter", wrote Inglis.Of the 1967 Harrison song "Within You Without You", author Gerry Farrell claimed that Harrison had created a "new form", calling the composition: "a quintessential fusion of pop and Indian music." Lennon called the song one of Harrison's best: "His mind and his music are clear. There is his innate talent, he brought that sound together." Beatles biographer Bob Spitz described "Something" as a masterpiece: "an intensely stirring romantic ballad that would challenge 'Yesterday' and 'Michelle' as one of the most recognizable songs they ever produced." According to Kenneth Womack, 'Harrison comes into his own on Abbey Road ... "Here Comes the Sun" is matched—indeed, surpassed—only by "Something", his crowning achievement'. Inglis considered Abbey Road a turning point in Harrison's development as a songwriter and musician. He described Harrison's contributions to the LP as "exquisite", declaring them equal to any previous Beatles songs. During the album's recording, Harrison asserted more creative control than before, proactively rejecting suggestions for changes to his music or lyrics, particularly from McCartney.His interest in Indian music proved a strong influence on his songwriting and contributed to his innovation within the Beatles. According to Rolling Stone, "Harrison's openness to new sounds and textures cleared new paths for his rock and roll compositions. His use of dissonance on ... 'Taxman' and 'I Want to Tell You' was revolutionary in popular music – and perhaps more originally creative than the avant-garde mannerisms that Lennon and McCartney borrowed from the music of Karlheinz Stockhausen, Luciano Berio, Edgard Varèse and Igor Stravinsky". In 1997, author Gerry Farrell commented: "It is a mark of Harrison's sincere involvement ... that, nearly thirty years on, the Beatles' 'Indian' songs remain the most imaginative and successful examples of this type of fusion."Guitar workRolling Stone founder Jann Wenner described Harrison as "a guitarist who was never showy but who had an innate, eloquent melodic sense. He played exquisitely in the service of the song". Harrison's friend and former bandmate Tom Petty agreed: "He just had a way of getting right to the business, of finding the right thing to play." The guitar picking style of Chet Atkins and Carl Perkins influenced Harrison, giving a country music feel to many of the Beatles' recordings. He identified Chuck Berry as an early influence and Ry Cooder as an important later influence.In 1961 the Beatles recorded "Cry for a Shadow", a blues-inspired instrumental co-written by Lennon and Harrison, who is credited with composing the song's lead guitar part, building on unusual chord voicings and imitating the style of other English groups such as the Shadows. The musicologist Walter Everett noted that while early Beatles compositions typically held close to the conventional patterns in rock music at the time, he also identified significant variations in their rhythm and tonal direction. Harrison's liberal use of the diatonic scale in his guitar playing reveals the influence of Buddy Holly, and his interest in Berry inspired him to compose songs based on the blues scale while incorporating a rockabilly feel in the style of Perkins. Within this framework he often utilized syncopation, as during his guitar solos for the Beatles' covers of Berry's "Roll Over Beethoven" and "Too Much Monkey Business". Another of Harrison's musical techniques was the use of guitar lines written in octaves, as on "I'll Be on My Way". He was the first person to own a Rickenbacker 360/12, a guitar that featured twelve strings in 6 pairs, the low eight of which are tuned in pairs, one octave apart; the higher 4 being pairs tuned in unison. The Rickenbacker is unique among twelve string guitars in having the lower octave string of each of the first four pairs placed above the higher tuned string. This, and the naturally rich harmonics produced by a twelve string guitar providing the distinctive overtones found on many of the Beatles recordings. His use of this guitar during the recording of A Hard Day's Night helped to popularize the model, and the jangly sound became so prominent that Melody Maker termed it the Beatles' "secret weapon".Harrison wrote the chord progression of his first published song, "Don't Bother Me" (1963), almost exclusively in the Dorian mode, demonstrating an interest in exotic tones that eventually culminated in his embrace of Indian music. The dark timbre of his guitar playing on the track was accentuated by his use of uncomplicated yet effective C+9 chord voicings and a solo in the minor pentatonic scale. By 1964 he had begun to develop a distinctive personal style as a guitarist, writing parts that featured the use of nonresolving tones, as with the ending chord arpeggios on "A Hard Day's Night". In 1965 he used an expression pedal to control his guitar's volume on "I Need You", creating a syncopated flautando effect with the melody resolving its dissonance through tonal displacements. He used the same volume-swell technique on "Yes It Is", applying what Everett described as "ghostly articulation" to the song's natural harmonics.Of Rubber Soul's "If I Needed Someone", Harrison said: "it's like a million other songs written around the D chord. If you move your fingers about, you get various little melodies ... it amazes me that people still find new permutations of the same notes." His other contribution to the album, "Think for Yourself", features what Everett described as "ambiguous tonal coloring", utilizing chromaticism in G major with a "strange" mixture of the Dorian mode and the minor pentatonic; he called it a "tour de force of altered scale degrees". In 1966 Harrison contributed innovative musical ideas to Revolver. He played backwards guitar on Lennon's composition "I'm Only Sleeping" and a guitar counter-melody on "And Your Bird Can Sing" that moved in parallel octaves above McCartney's bass downbeats. His guitar playing on "I Want to Tell You" exemplified the pairing of altered chordal colours with descending chromatic lines and his guitar part for Sgt Pepper's "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" mirrors Lennon's vocal line in much the same way that a sarangi player accompanies a khyal singer in a Hindu devotional song.Everett described Harrison's guitar solo from "Old Brown Shoe" as "stinging [and\] highly Claptonesque". He identified two of the composition's significant motifs: a bluesy trichord and a diminished triad with roots in A and E. Huntley called the song "a sizzling rocker with a ferocious ... solo." In Greene's opinion, Harrison's demo for the song contains "one of the most complex lead guitar solos on any Beatles song."Harrison's playing on Abbey Road, and in particular on "Something", marked a significant moment in his development as a guitarist. The song's guitar solo shows a varied range of influences, incorporating the blues guitar style of Clapton and the styles of Indian gamakas. According to author and musicologist Kenneth Womack: "'Something' meanders toward the most unforgettable of Harrison's guitar solos ... A masterpiece in simplicity, [it\] reaches toward the sublime". Harrison received an Ivor Novello award in July 1970 for "Something", as "The Best Song Musically and Lyrically of the Year".After Delaney Bramlett inspired him to learn slide guitar, Harrison began to incorporate it into his solo work, which allowed him to mimic many traditional Indian instruments, including the sarangi and the dilruba. Leng described Harrison's slide guitar solo on Lennon's "How Do You Sleep?" as a departure for "the sweet soloist of 'Something'", calling his playing "rightly famed ... one of Harrison's greatest guitar statements." Lennon commented: "That's the best he's ever fucking played in his life."A Hawaiian influence is notable in much of Harrison's music, ranging from his slide guitar work on Gone Troppo (1982) to his televised performance of the Cab Calloway standard "Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea" on ukulele in 1992. Lavezzoli described Harrison's slide playing on the Grammy-winning instrumental "Marwa Blues" (2002) as demonstrating Hawaiian influences while comparing the melody to an Indian sarod or veena, calling it "yet another demonstration of Harrison's unique slide approach". Harrison was an admirer of George Formby and a member of the Ukulele Society of Great Britain, and played a ukulele solo in the style of Formby at the end of "Free as a Bird". He performed at a Formby convention in 1991, and served as the honorary president of the George Formby Appreciation Society. Harrison played bass guitar on numerous tracks, including the Beatles' songs "Drive My Car", "She Said She Said", "Golden Slumbers", "Birthday" and "Honey Pie". He also played bass on several solo recordings, including "Faster", "Wake Up My Love" and "Bye Bye Love".GuitarsWhen Harrison joined the Quarrymen in 1958 his main guitar was a Höfner President Acoustic, which he soon traded for a Höfner Club 40 model. His first solid-body electric guitar was a Czech-built Jolana Futurama/Grazioso. The guitars he used on early recordings were mainly Gretsch models, played through a Vox amplifier, including a Gretsch Duo Jet that he bought secondhand in 1961, and posed with on the album cover for Cloud Nine (1987). He also bought a Gretsch Tennessean and a Gretsch Country Gentleman, which he played on "She Loves You", and during the Beatles' 1964 appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show. In 1963 he bought a Rickenbacker 425 Fireglo, and in 1964 he acquired a Rickenbacker 360/12 guitar, which was the second of its kind to be manufactured. Harrison obtained his first Fender Stratocaster in 1965 and used it in recording Rubber Soul, notably on the song "Nowhere Man".In early 1966 Harrison, Lennon, and McCartney each purchased Epiphone Casinos, which they used on Revolver. Harrison also used a Gibson J-160E and a Gibson SG Standard while recording the album. He later painted his Stratocaster in a psychedelic design that included the word "Bebopalula" above the pickguard and the guitar's nickname, "Rocky", on the headstock. He played this guitar in the Magical Mystery Tour film and throughout his solo career. In mid-1968 he acquired a Gibson Les Paul that he nicknamed "Lucy". Around this time, he obtained a Gibson Jumbo J-200, which he used for early demos of "While My Guitar Gently Weeps". In late 1968 Fender Musical Instruments Corporation gave Harrison a custom-made Fender Telecaster Rosewood prototype, made especially for him by a Fender master builder who also crafted a prototype Stratocaster for Jimi Hendrix.Studio collaborationsHarrison's music projects during the final years of the Beatles included producing Apple Records artists Doris Troy, Jackie Lomax and Billy Preston. Throughout his solo career, he benefited from the inclusion of guest musicians on his albums, and he made efforts to reciprocate the favours by participating in their recordings. He was featured as a guitarist on tracks by Dave Mason, Nicky Hopkins, Alvin Lee, Ronnie Wood, Billy Preston and Tom Scott. Harrison co-wrote songs and music with Dylan, Clapton, Preston, Doris Troy, David Bromberg, Gary Wright, Wood, Jeff Lynne, and Tom Petty, among others.Harrison co-wrote the song "Badge" with Clapton, which was included on Cream's 1969 album, Goodbye. Harrison played rhythm guitar on the track, using the pseudonym "L'Angelo Misterioso" for contractual reasons. He used the same pseudonym when he recorded a guitar part for "Never Tell Your Mother She's Out of Tune", a song from Jack Bruce's 1969 solo album, Songs for a Tailor. In May 1970 he played guitar on several songs during a recording session for Dylan's album New Morning. In addition to his own work, between 1971 and 1973 he co-wrote and/or produced three top ten hits for Starr: "It Don't Come Easy", "Back Off Boogaloo" and "Photograph". In 1971 he played electric slide guitar on "How Do You Sleep?" and a dobro on "Crippled Inside", both from Lennon's Imagine album. Also that year, he produced and played slide guitar on Badfinger's top ten hit "Day After Day", and a dobro on Preston's "I Wrote a Simple Song". He worked with Harry Nilsson on "You're Breakin' My Heart" (1972) and with Cheech & Chong on "Basketball Jones" (1973). In 1973 he produced and made a guest appearance on the album Shankar Family & Friends.In 1974 Harrison founded Dark Horse Records. In addition to eventually releasing his own albums on the label, he initially used the company as an avenue for collaboration with other musicians. He wanted Dark Horse to serve as a creative outlet for artists, as Apple Records had for the Beatles. Harrison explained: "Most of the stuff will be what I produce". Eric Idle commented: "He's extremely generous, and he backs and supports all sorts of people that you'll never, ever hear of." The first acts signed to the new label were Ravi Shankar and Splinter, whose album Harrison produced, which provided Dark Horse with their first hit, "Costafine Town". Other artists signed by Dark Horse include Attitudes, Henry McCullough, Jiva, and Stairsteps.Harrison collaborated with Tom Scott on Scott's album New York Connection (1976), and in 1981 he played guitar on "Walk a Thin Line", from Mick Fleetwood's The Visitor. In 1996 he recorded "Distance Makes No Difference With Love" with Carl Perkins, and played slide guitar on the title track of Dylan's Under the Red Sky album. In 2001 he performed as a guest musician on Jeff Lynne and Electric Light Orchestra's comeback album Zoom, and on the song "Love Letters" for Bill Wyman's Rhythm Kings. He also co-wrote a new song with his son Dhani, "Horse to the Water", which was recorded on 1 October, eight weeks before his death. It appeared on Jools Holland's album Small World, Big Band.Sitar and Indian musicDuring the Beatles' American tour in August 1965, Harrison's friend David Crosby of the Byrds introduced him to Indian classical music and the work of sitar maestro Ravi Shankar. Harrison described Shankar as "the first person who ever impressed me in my life ... and he was the only person who didn't try to impress me." Harrison became fascinated with the sitar and immersed himself in Indian music. According to Lavezzoli, Harrison's introduction of the instrument on the Beatles' song "Norwegian Wood" "opened the floodgates for Indian instrumentation in rock music, triggering what Shankar would call 'The Great Sitar Explosion' of 1966–67." Lavezzoli described Harrison as "the man most responsible for this phenomenon".In June 1966 Harrison met Shankar at the home of Mrs Angadi of the Asian Music Circle, asked to be his student, and was accepted. On 6 July, Harrison travelled to India to buy a sitar from Rikhi Ram & Sons in New Delhi. Lavezzoli described Harrison's sitar playing on the Revolver track "Love You To" as an "astonishing improvement" over "Norwegian Wood" and "the most accomplished performance on sitar by any rock musician." In September, he returned to India to study sitar with Shankar. He initially stayed in Bombay, then moved to a houseboat on a remote lake where Shankar taught him for six weeks. After Shankar, he received tutelage from Shambhu Das.Harrison studied the instrument until 1968, when an encounter with Clapton and Hendrix at a hotel in New York convinced him to put down the instrument and return to guitar playing. He commented: "I decided ... I should get back to the guitar because I'm not getting any better at it, and I'm not going to be a great sitar player ... because I should have started at least fifteen years earlier."HinduismBy the mid-1960s Harrison had become an admirer of Indian culture and mysticism, introducing it to the other Beatles. During the filming of Help! in the Bahamas, they met the founder of Sivananda Yoga, Swami Vishnu-devananda, who gave each of them a signed copy of his book, The Complete Illustrated Book of Yoga. Between the end of the last Beatles tour in 1966 and the beginning of the Sgt Pepper recording sessions, he made a pilgrimage to Bombay with his wife Pattie, where he studied sitar, met several gurus, and visited various holy places. In 1968 he travelled to Rishikesh in northern India with the other Beatles to study meditation with Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Harrison's use of psychedelic drugs encouraged his path to meditation and Hinduism. He commented: "For me, it was like a flash. The first time I had acid, it just opened up something in my head that was inside of me, and I realized a lot of things. I didn't learn them because I already knew them, but that happened to be the key that opened the door to reveal them. From the moment I had that, I wanted to have it all the time—these thoughts about the yogis and the Himalayas, and Ravi's music."Harrison became a vegetarian in the late 1960s, and a devotee of the Indian mystic Paramahansa Yogananda. In mid-1969, he produced the single "Hare Krishna Mantra", performed by members of the London Radha Krishna Temple. Soon after, Harrison embraced the Hare Krishna tradition, particularly japa-yoga chanting with beads, and became a lifelong devotee. He respected people of other faiths and once remarked: "All religions are branches of one big tree. It doesn't matter what you call Him just as long as you call." He commented on his beliefs:Krishna actually was in a body as a person ... What makes it complicated is, if he's God, what's he doing fighting on a battlefield? It took me ages to try to figure that out, and again it was Yogananda's spiritual interpretation of the Bhagavad Gita that made me realise what it was. Our idea of Krishna and Arjuna on the battlefield in the chariot. So this is the point—that we're in these bodies, which is like a kind of chariot, and we're going through this incarnation, this life, which is kind of a battlefield. The senses of the body ... are the horses pulling the chariot, and we have to get control over the chariot by getting control over the reins. And Arjuna in the end says, 'Please Krishna, you drive the chariot' because unless we bring Christ or Krishna or Buddha or whichever of our spiritual guides ... we're going to crash our chariot, and we're going to turn over, and we're going to get killed in the battlefield. That's why we say 'Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna', asking Krishna to come and take over the chariot.Before his religious conversion, the only British performer known for similar activities had been Cliff Richard, whose conversion to Christianity in 1966 had gone largely unnoticed by the public. "By contrast," wrote Inglis, "Harrison's spiritual journey was seen as a serious and important development that reflected popular music's increasing maturity ... what he, and the Beatles had managed to overturn was the paternalistic assumption that popular musicians had no role other than to stand on stage and sing their hit songs."Family and interestsHarrison married the model Pattie Boyd on 21 January 1966, with McCartney as best man. Harrison and Boyd had met in 1964 during the production of the film A Hard Day's Night, in which the 19-year-old Boyd had been cast as a schoolgirl. They separated in 1974 and their divorce was finalized in 1977. Boyd said her decision to end their marriage and leave Harrison was due largely to his repeated infidelities, culminating in an affair with Starr's wife Maureen, which Boyd called "the final straw". She characterized the last year of their marriage as "fuelled by alcohol and cocaine", and she stated: "George used coke excessively, and I think it changed him ... it froze his emotions and hardened his heart." She subsequently moved in with Clapton, and they married in 1979.Harrison married Dark Horse Records' secretary Olivia Trinidad Arias on 2 September 1978. They had met at the Dark Horse offices in Los Angeles in 1974, and together had one son, Dhani Harrison, born on 1 August 1978.He restored the English manor house and grounds of Friar Park, his home in Henley-on-Thames, where several of his music videos were filmed including "Crackerbox Palace"; the grounds also served as the background for the cover of All Things Must Pass. He employed ten workers to maintain the 36-acre (150,000 m) garden. Harrison commented on gardening as a form of escapism: "Sometimes I feel like I'm actually on the wrong planet, and it's great when I'm in my garden, but the minute I go out the gate I think: 'What the hell am I doing here?'" His autobiography, I, Me, Mine, is dedicated "to gardeners everywhere". The former Beatles publicist Derek Taylor helped Harrison write the book, which said little about the Beatles, focusing instead on Harrison's hobbies, music and lyrics. Taylor commented: "George is not disowning the Beatles ... but it was a long time ago and actually a short part of his life."Harrison had an interest in sports cars and motor racing; he was one of the 100 people who purchased the McLaren F1 road car. He had collected photos of racing drivers and their cars since he was young; at 12 he had attended his first race, the 1955 British Grand Prix at Aintree. He wrote "Faster" as a tribute to the Formula One racing drivers Jackie Stewart and Ronnie Peterson. Proceeds from its release went to the Gunnar Nilsson cancer charity, set up after the Swedish driver's death from the disease in 1978. Harrison's first extravagant car, a 1964 Aston Martin DB5, was sold at auction on 7 December 2011 in London. An anonymous Beatles collector paid £350,000 for the vehicle that Harrison had bought new in January 1965.Relationships with the other BeatlesFor most of the Beatles' career the relationships in the group were close. According to Hunter Davies, "the Beatles spent their lives not living a communal life, but communally living the same life. They were each other's greatest friends." Harrison's ex-wife Pattie Boyd described how the Beatles "all belonged to each other" and admitted, "George has a lot with the others that I can never know about. Nobody, not even the wives, can break through or even comprehend it."Starr said, "We really looked out for each other and we had so many laughs together. In the old days we'd have the biggest hotel suites, the whole floor of the hotel, and the four of us would end up in the bathroom, just to be with each other". He added, "there were some really loving, caring moments between four people: a hotel room here and there – a really amazing closeness. Just four guys who loved each other. It was pretty sensational."Lennon stated that his relationship with Harrison was "one of young follower and older guy ... [he\] was like a disciple of mine when we started." The two later bonded over their LSD experiences, finding common ground as seekers of spirituality. They took radically different paths thereafter, Harrison finding God and Lennon coming to the conclusion that people are the creators of their own lives. In 1974 Harrison said of his former bandmate: "John Lennon is a saint and he's heavy-duty, and he's great and I love him. But at the same time, he's such a bastard – but that's the great thing about him, you see?"Harrison and McCartney were the first of the Beatles to meet, having shared a school bus, and often learned and rehearsed new guitar chords together. McCartney stated that he and Harrison usually shared a bedroom while touring. McCartney was best man at Harrison's wedding in 1966, and was the only Beatle in attendance. McCartney has referred to Harrison as his "baby brother". In a 1974 BBC radio interview with Alan Freeman, Harrison stated: "[McCartney\] ruined me as a guitar player". Perhaps the most significant obstacle to a Beatles reunion after the death of Lennon was Harrison and McCartney's personal relationship, as both men admitted that they often got on each other's nerves. Rodriguez commented: "even to the end of George's days, theirs was a volatile relationship".Humanitarian workHarrison was involved in humanitarian and political activism throughout his life. In the 1960s, the Beatles supported the civil rights movement and protested against the Vietnam War. After the band's break-up, Ravi Shankar consulted Harrison about how to provide aid to the people of Bangladesh after the 1970 Bhola cyclone and the Bangladesh Liberation War. Harrison recorded the song "Bangla Desh", and pushed Apple Records to release his song alongside Shankar's "Joy Bangla" in an effort to raise funds. Shankar then asked for Harrison's advice about planning a small charity event in the US. Harrison responded by organizing the Concert for Bangladesh, which raised more than $240,000. In June 1972, UNICEF honoured Harrison and Shankar with the "Child Is the Father of Man" award at an annual ceremony in recognition of their fundraising efforts for Bangladesh.The George Harrison Humanitarian Fund for UNICEF, a joint effort between the Harrison family and the US Fund for UNICEF, aims to support programmes that help children caught in humanitarian emergencies. In December 2007, they donated $450,000 to help the victims of Cyclone Sidr in Bangladesh. On 13 October 2009, the first George Harrison Humanitarian Award went to Ravi Shankar for his efforts in saving the lives of children, and his involvement with the Concert for Bangladesh.HandMade FilmsIn 1973 Peter Sellers introduced Harrison to Denis O'Brien. Soon after, the two went into business together. In 1978, in an effort to produce Monty Python's Life of Brian, they formed the film production and distribution company HandMade Films. Harrison explained: "The name of the company came about as a bit of a joke. I'd been to Wooky Hole in Somerset ... [near\] an old paper mill where they show you how to make old underpants into paper. So I bought a few rolls, and they had this watermark 'British Handmade Paper' ... So we said ... we'll call it Handmade Films."Their opportunity for investment came after EMI Films withdrew funding at the demand of their Chief Executive, Bernard Delfont. Harrison financed the production of Life of Brian in part by mortgaging his home, which Idle later called "the most anybody's ever paid for a cinema ticket in history." The film grossed $21 million at the box office in the US. The first film distributed by HandMade Films was The Long Good Friday (1980), and the first they produced was Time Bandits (1981), a co-scripted project by Monty Python's Terry Gilliam and Michael Palin. The film featured a new song by Harrison, "Dream Away", in the closing credits. Time Bandits became one of HandMade's most successful and acclaimed efforts; with a budget of $5 million, it earned $35 million in the US within ten weeks of its release.Harrison served as executive producer for 23 films with HandMade, including Mona Lisa, Shanghai Surprise and Withnail and I. He made several cameo appearances in these films, including a role as a nightclub singer in Shanghai Surprise, for which he recorded five new songs. According to author and musicologist Ian Inglis, Harrison's "executive role in HandMade Films helped to sustain British cinema at a time of crisis, producing some of the country's most memorable movies of the 1980s." A series of box office bombs in the late 1980s caused HandMade to cease operations in 1991; three years later, the company was sold.LegacyIn 1965 Harrison and the other Beatles were appointed Members of the Order of the British Empire (MBE). They received their insignia from the Queen at an investiture at Buckingham Palace on 26 October. In 1971 the Beatles received an Academy Award for the best Original Song Score for the film Let It Be. The minor planet 4149 Harrison, discovered in 1984, was named after him. In December 1992 he became the first recipient of the Billboard Century Award, an honour presented to music artists for significant bodies of work. Rolling Stone magazine ranked him number 11 in their list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time".In 2002, on the first anniversary of his death, the Concert for George was held at the Royal Albert Hall. Clapton organized the event, which included performances by many of Harrison's friends and musical collaborators, including McCartney and Starr. Eric Idle, who described Harrison as "one of the few morally good people that rock and roll has produced", performed Monty Python's "Lumberjack Song". The profits from the concert went to Harrison's charity, the Material World Charitable Foundation.In 2004 Harrison was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a solo artist by his former bandmates Lynne and Petty, and into the Madison Square Garden Walk of Fame in 2006 for the Concert for Bangladesh. On 14 April 2009, the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce awarded Harrison a star on the Walk of Fame in front of the Capitol Records Building. McCartney, Lynne and Petty were present when the star was unveiled. Harrison's widow Olivia, the actor Tom Hanks and Idle made speeches at the ceremony, and Harrison's son Dhani spoke the Hare Krishna mantra.The documentary film, George Harrison: Living in the Material World, was directed by Martin Scorsese and released in October 2011. The film features interviews with Olivia and Dhani Harrison, Klaus Voormann, Terry Gilliam, Starr, Clapton, McCartney, Jim Keltner and Astrid Kirchherr.